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1.4 Conservation.

Starting in the early 1960s, the Ecuadorian government has had a national policy for the establishment of 33 protected areas, the Ecuadorian National System of Protected Areas or NSPA. This system comprises 4,800,000 hectare (11,860,000 acres) or nearly 18% of Ecuador’s territory. This government-supported system of parks and reserves represents a tremendous asset for Ecuadorian conservation. Even when the NSPA faces problems such us management issues and other difficulties e.g. settling of unit´s borders, private land held inside the units plus other problems that protected areas face throughout the world, thanks to the NSPA most of the Ecuadorian bird species receive formal protection.
One of the greatest deficiencies of the NSPA is that the protected areas are mainly located in northern Ecuador. The southern half of the country, especially the southwest and the southern Andean habitats, is underrepresented.
The fact is that only a very small number of species absolutely require large areas of pristine undisturbed habitat. Most of the birds requiring protection can manage to survive in a mosaic of more or less undisturbed areas, and this is quite encouraging, especially because nearly 160 areas receiving the status of Protected Forest (Bosque Protector) exist in Ecuador. All of them are recognized and almost half of these Protected Forests are owned by the Ecuadorian government even when they are not part of the NSPA.  The others are private and almost all of these protected areas are also facing their particular conservation problems. The hope is that these areas will enhance the conservation efforts to help solve the different issues that put them under risk.
It is believed that over 100 private protected areas are preserving nearly 70,000 hectare (173,000 acres) in different regions of Ecuador but unfortunately the great majority lies in the northern half of the country as is the case of the Protected Forests.
This weakness of the NSPA in southern Ecuador has triggered several private efforts to protect some of these important areas and their habitats. Conservation groups like Arco Iris, Natura y Cultura Internacional, Jocotoco Foundation and several other conservation oriented local communities e.g. Loma Alta are good examples. The hope is also that in the near future these and other newly arising groups will fill the gap in protection with the creation of several small reserves protecting and preserving the ecosystems and species that might have been left out in previous efforts.

List of units of the Ecuadorian National System of Protected Areas or NSPA

National Parks (10).
Cajas NP.
Colambo-Yacuri NP
Cotopaxi NP.
Llanganates NP.
Machalilla NP.
Podocarpus NP.
Sangay NP.
Sumaco NP.
Yasuní NP.
Ecological Reserves (10)
Antisana ER
Arenillas ER
El Angel ER
Cayambe-Coca ER
Manglares Cayapas-Mataje ER
Cofán-Bermejo ER
Cotacachi-Cayapas ER
Los Illinizas ER
Mache-Chindul ER
Manglares-Churute ER
Fauna Reproduction Reserves (3)
Chimborazo FRR
Cuyabeno FRR
Manglares El Salado FRR
Biological Reserves (2)
Limoncocha BR
Marina de Galápagos BR
National Recreation Areas (2)
El Boliche NRA
Parque Lago NRA
Geo-botany Reserves (1)
Pululahua GBR
Wildlife Refuges (4)
Pasochoa WR
Isla Santa Clara WRg
Ecosistema del Manglar del Estuario del Rio Muisne WR
Corazón y FragatasWR
Parque Binacional (1)
El Cóndor PBN
Petrified  Forest(1)
1.4.1 Important considerations for bird species conservation in Ecuador. Hunting for food supply and cultural reasons.
Among the ancestral cultures in Ecuador hunting has always been a way to obtain the necessary protein supply for healthy living. Hunting has mainly concentrated on mammals especially, the big ones. Birds suffer the same kind of pressure but to a lesser extent; nevertheless the big edible bird species like curassows and guans are clear examples of the damage that hunting can produce in certain bird species. In modern times the pressure has been even greater because of the use of modern firearms. Hunting for cultural reasons is an activity that is also responsible for the decline of certain bird species whose feathers are used for traditional or commercial purposes e.g. decorative (male Black-necked Red-Cotingas are persecuted for their red feathers and this is also the case with several parrots and macaws). A few raptor species do take chicks from farm birds and in colonized areas settlers literally kill every single raptor they can so as to protect their farm birds even when the diet of those raptors raptor does not includes small birds e.g. Laughing Falcon.
The Andean Condor, even when mainly not a raptor for it is a carrion eater, has also been under huge pressure in the last 40 years. The fact that they kill lambs and calfs by forcing them to run off cliffs had made highland farmers to hunt them and even poison carrion in order to get rid of them. Fortunately educational programs and other protection actions are slowly reversing a critical condition for the Ecuadorian Condor population. Parrots at risk.
Some parrots have the capacity to imitate human speech, laughs, and whistles. They are particularly smart, have individual personalities and can become quite fond of and attached to people. For these reasons and because they simply are beautiful are why many people in Ecuador still want a parrot as a pet. Amazons and macaws are particularly desireded and even when the poaching and trading of any wildlife in Ecuador is forbidden, parrots are for sale, informally and illegally, in almost every single town market throughout the country.
In recent years the Ecuadorian Ministry of environment has been fighting against illegal trading of parrots in Ecuador with little or no success.
Some parrot species have for decades been the focus of an international market wherein certain species were worth thousands of dollars upon arrival at their final destination. Sadly in the process of capturing and transporting parrots many individuals die. In more recent years there have been several international efforts to control the illegal trading of parrot species, and many efforts to breed parrots in captivity to supply the international market. For several decades Ecuador has enforced a prohibition on the export of its wild birds, including all parrot species and though some are smuggled into Peru for re-export, this activity seems presently to have little effect on the Ecuadorian parrot populations. An exception could be for the Red-masked Parakeet of the Tumbesian region. Ecuador has not a single program to breed parrots in captivity. Human impact in the Western Lowlands, Northern Central Andean Valleys and the Galapagos Islands.
Eighty percent of the Ecuadorian population resides in the central Andean valleys and the western side of the Andes with an especially high density in the western lowlands. This unbalanced demographic distribution has heavily impacted western lowland habitats and as a result most forest from Los Ríos and Manabí Provinces is gone with only a few small protected areas still existing. This area of Ecuador has the best soil for farming and ranching and human pressure keeps on growing non-stop. A tremendous numbers of at-risk species occur in what remains of these west-slope forests.
The expansion of rice cultivation and ranching have had a devastating impact on the marshland habitat in the western lowlands of Ecuador, in much the same way that the shrimp farming industry has destroyed most mangrove forest. The most important remnants of mangrove forest are now in northern Esmeraldas and around the Golf of Guayaquil.
The Northern Central inter-Andean valleys have also greatly suffered from human impacts; especially ponds and marshes along with woodland and dry scrub habitats. These areas have been so severely affected that no one really knows how they originally looked. Introduction of alien species.
This phenomenon in Ecuador is almost entirely affecting the birds of the Galápagos Islands where the introduction of alien mammals to the islands is putting native birds at risk due to direct predation, alteration of habitats, conditions making it no longer suitable for the native species, and the direct competition for food. The only introduced species on the mainland that has begun to have an effect on native birds is the House Sparrow and that, thankfully, for now remains relatively local and uncommon. Update on the status of the bird species considered to be at risk in Ecuador.
In this section I will try to share the latest information available for certain species which are considered to be at risk in Ecuador, and at the same time try to state my own views regarding some of these species. I will comment on the list of the species at risk provided by “Red Book of the Birds of Ecuador” (Granizo et. all, 2002) which in turn used the list presented by the “Birds of Ecuador” (Ridgely and Greenfield, 2001).
It should be emphasized, again, that these ratings refer only to the status of the species in Ecuador, including the Galápagos Islands. Extirpated (4)

Cinnamon Teal *            Anas cyanoptera borreroi
American Coot*                        Fulica americana columbiana
Tawny-throated Dotterel         Oreopholus ruficollis pallidus
Grasshopper Sparrow            Ammodramus savannarum caucae
I agree with Granizo et. all (2002). There are not records for these species for almost a century and the suitable habitat for these species seems to be gone forever albeit it could still be found in some remote undisturbed pasture especially accounting to the fact that this is a nomadic species that could show up at any time in the proper habitat.
* Regional endemic species shared either with Colombia or Peru Critical (18)

Galapagos Petrel ***             Pterodroma phaeopygia
Southern Pochard                  Netta erythrophthalma
Cinnamon Teal             Anas cyanoptera
Both “Birds of Ecuador” and “Birds of Ecuador Red-data book” rank this species as extirpated from Ecuador. According to both books there are records of the rare A. c. borreroi (6 specimens) from the Ibarra province from the early 1900s but consequently this race has not been recorded since and apparently is now extinct from the northern highlands of Ecuador. (The actual numbers of this rare race had been estimated to be less than 250 individuals but it hard to know if that is the case). There is also a published record for Cinnamon Teal from Llaviucú Lake (King, 1989) with no subspecies details.
The boreal migrant race A. c. septentrionalium was formerly also recorded from the northern and central highland lakes but now seems to be absent from the highlands of Ecuador.
The last historical record of the Cinnamon Teal dates from 1938 when male and a female septentrionalium were collected in San Pablo Lake, Ibarra Province (Ridgely and Greenfield, 2001).
There are only two known recent records (as to July 2008) of Cinnamon Teal from Ecuador:
A male Cinnamon Teal was seen and photographed just north of Santa Rosa, El Oro province1st June 2003 by Roger Ahlman and 2 young males were seen and photographed in some partially empty shrimp ponds west of Churute Lake, Guayas province, October 2006 by Lelis Navarrete. Both recent records, due to the dates, could refer to A. c. cyanoptera the nominate race present in coastal Perú.
Black-faced Ibis             Theristicus melanopis
Jabiru                     Jabiru micteria
The species occurs as a vagrant in Ecuador (Ridgely and Greenfield, 2001). Granizo et. all, (2002) claimed that the Cuyabeno Fauna Production Reserve has enough wetlands to support the populations visiting Ecuador. I strongly disagree with this view since there are only three records of single birds of this species for Ecuador and  the Cuyabeno FPR, albeit having wetlands, is flooded forest that very seldom and sporadically shows the proper depth of waters to hold a population of the Jabiru. There are no records from Cuyabeno where I lived for almost a year (1990-1991) at the Laguna Grande area, and after that I visited the area for 3-4 more years as a Naturalist guide. If it occurs at Cuyabeno FPR it will only be as a very rare visitor.
Andean Condor             Vultur gryphus
Great Curassow                       Crax rubra rubra
Wattled Curassow                      Crax globulosa
Least Seedsnipe              Thinocorus rumicivorus cuneicauda
The seedsnipe had been rated extirpated from Ecuador because the last sight records were in 1974. However, there is one recent record: in late February 2003 when L. Navarrete et al photographed a male in Punta Carnero, close to the south entrance gate of the Ecuasal salt ponds. There have been no subsequent records.
Marañon Pigeon *            Columba oenops    
Ridgely and Greenfield (2001), following Collar et al (1994) only rate this species as Vulnerable. I believe that the species deserves a higher level of risk. There are only three records for Ecuador, the one mentioned by Ridgely (2001) and Lelis Navarrete and John Moore saw one near “El Chorro” in April 2002 southeast of Zumba, Zamora Chinchipe province. In the same area near La Chonta, Lelis Navarrete and John Moore saw another individual in April 2002. The bird seems to be truly rare in Ecuador and is also very scarce in Perú where, though more numerous than in Ecuador, it is also local and rare. There have been more recent records from the Zumba area.
Great Green Macaw              Ara ambiguus
Scarlet-fronted Parakeet *         Aratinga wagleri
Ridgely and Greenfield (2001) rates it as data deficient but I agree with the Granizo et al (2002) treatment given to the species. The records reported from Buenaventura alleged to be this species almost certainly were Red-masked Parakeet, A. erythrogenys.
Yellow-eared Parrot *                   Ognorhynchus icterotis
Turquoise-throated Puffleg **       Eriocnemis godini
Black-breasted Puffleg     **    Eriocnemis nigriventris
Charles Mockingbird ***         Nesomimus trifasciatus
Granizo et al (2002) rate it as endangered, the small size of the population (no more than 300 individuals) and the tiny range of the distribution, in my view this species deserves to be given critically endangered status.
Pale-headed Brush-Finch **        Atlapetes pallidiceps
Mangrove Finch ***            Cactospiza heliobates

* Regional endemic species shared either with Colombia or Peru
** Ecuadorian endemic species
*** Galápagos endemic species. Endangered (47)

Berlepsch's Tinamou *        Crypturellus berlepschi
Galápagos Penguin ***        Spheniscus mendiculus
Waved Albatross ***            Phoebastria  irrorata
Flightless Cormorant ***        Nannopterum harrisi
Horned Screamer             Anhima cornuta
Orinoco Goose             Neochen jubata
Muscovy Duck             Cairina moschata
Semiplumbeous Hawk         Leucopternis semiplumbea
Gray-backed Hawk *            Leucopternis occidentalis
Galápagos Hawk ***            Buteo galapagoensis
Plumbeous Forest-Falcon *           Micrastur plumbeus
Peregrine Falcon             Falco peregrinus
Bearded Guan *            Penelope barbata
Baudó Guan *                      Penelope ortoni
Crested Guan                Penelope purpurascens
Tawny-faced Quail            Rhynchortyx cinctus
Rufous-necked Wood-Rail *         Aramides axillaris
Brown Wood-Rail *            Aramides wolfi
Ochre-bellied Dove *            Leptotila ochraceiventris
Olive-backed Quail-Dove          Geotrygon veraguensis
Military Macaw             Ara militaris
Golden-plumed Parakeet         Leptosittaca branickii
El Oro Parakeet **            Pyrrhura orcesi
Red-faced Parrot *            Hapalopsittaca pyrrhops
Red-lored Amazon             Amazona autumnalis
Pavonine Cuckoo                       Dromococcyx pavoninus
Banded Ground-Cuckoo *           Neomorphus radiolosus
Violet-throated Metaltail **        Metallura baroni
Esmeraldas Woodstar **               Chaetocercus berlepschi
Slaty-tailed Trogon             Trogon massena
Five-colored Barbet *            Capito quinticolor
Blackish-headed Spinetail *        Synallaxis tithys
Rufous-necked Foliage-gleaner *     Syndactyla ruficollis
Gray-headed Antbird *        Myrmeciza griseiceps
Moustached Antpitta     *        Grallaria alleni
Watkins's Antpitta *            Grallaria watkinsi
Jocotoco Antpitta *            Grallaria ridgelyi
Yellow-breasted Antpitta *        Grallaria flavotincta
Bicolored Antpitta *                   Grallaria rufocinerea
El Oro Tapaculo **            Scytalopus robbinsi
White-tailed Shrike-Tyrant         Agriornis andicola
Slaty Becard *                Pachyrhamphus spodirus
Red-ruffed Fruitcrow                    Pyroderus scutatus
Long-wattled Umbrellabird *        Cephalopterus penduliger
Yellow-headed Manakin *           Choloropipo flavicapilla
Tit-like Dacnis             Xenodacnis parina
Orange-throated Tanager *           Wetmorethraupis sterrhopteron
* Regional endemic species shared either with either Colombia or Perú.
** Ecuadorian endemics species.
*** Galápagos endemic species. Vulnerable (101)

Pale-browed Tinamou *        Crypturellus transfasciatus
Silvery Grebe                 Podiceps occipitalis
Parkinson's Petrel                    Procellaria parkinsoni
Pink-footed Shearwater                Puffinus creatopus
Comb Duck                 Sarkidiornis melanotos
Pinnated Bittern             Botaurus pinnatus
American Flamingo             Phoenicopterus ruber
Snail Kite                 Rostrhamus sociabilis
Cinereus Harrier             Circus cinereus
Plumbeous Hawk             Leucopternis plumbea
Barred Hawk                 Leucopternis princeps
Common Black-Hawk         Buteogallus anthracinus
Solitary Eagle             Haryphaliaetus solitarius
Crested Eagle                 Morphnus guianensis
Harpy Eagle                 Harpia harpyja
Black-and-chestnut Eagle         Spizaetus isidorei
Orange-breasted Falcon         Falco deiroleucus
Sickle-winged Guan             Chamaepetes goudotii
Salvin's Curassow *            Mitu salvini
Rufous-fronted Wood-Quail         Odontophorus erythrops
Dark-backed Wood-Quail *        Odontophorus melanonotus
Galápagos Rail ***            Pardiralus spilonotus
Clapper Rail                 Rallus longirostris
Gray-winged Trumpeter         Psophia crepitans
Peruvian Thick-knee                Burhinus superciliaris
Pied Plover                 Hoploxypterus cayanus
Bridled Tern                        Onychoprion anaethetus
Lava Gull **                Larus fuliginosus
Black Skimmer             Rynchops nigra
Indigo-crowned Quail-Dove *    Geotrygon purpurata
Red-and-green Macaw         Ara chloropterus
Red-masked Parakeet *        Aratinga erythrogenys
White-breasted Parakeet *         Pyrrhura albipectus
Gray-cheeked Parakeet *        Brotogeris pyrrhopterus
Spot-winged Parrotlet         Touit stictopterus
Rose-faced Parrot *            Pionopsitta pulchra
Bronze-winged Parrot         Pionus chalcopterus
Central American Pygmy-Owl      Glaucidium griseiceps
Buff-fronted Owl                        Aegolius harrisi
Chocó Poorwill *            Nyctiphrynus rosenbergi
White-chested Swift             Cypseloides lemosi
Bronze-tailed Plumeleteer         Chalybura urochrysia
Empress Brillant *            Heliodoxa imperatrix
Pink-throated Brilliant         Heliodoxa gularis
Little Woodstar *            Acestrura bombus
Ridgely and Greenfield (2001) rate it as Data Deficient. Granizo et al (2002) do not rate this species as under any kind of risk. In my view this species is truly rare and tends to be quite local, occurs in the dry forest in the west, sporadically recorded from the foothills of the west and in the Marañon drainage east of Zumba. Considering the paucity of records and the great pressure its habitat is facing I feel it should be
considered to be Vulnerable.
Pale-mandible Araçari *        Pteroglossus erythropygius
Stripe-billed Araçari *        Pteroglossus sanguineus
Plate-billed Mountain-Toucan *     Andigena laminirostris
Chocó Toucan     *        Ramphastos brevis
Chestnut-mandibled Toucan         Ramphastos swainsonii
Lita Woodpecker *            Piculus litae
Choco Woodpecker *            Veniliornis chocoensis
Guayaquil Woodpecker *        Campephilus gayaquilensis
Chestnut-throated Spinetail            Synallaxis cherriei
Double-banded Graytail         Xenerpestes minlosi
Star-chested Treerunner *        Margarornis stellatus
Pacific Tuftedcheek *            Pseudocolaptes johnsoni
Slaty-winged Foliage-gleaner     Philydor fuscipenne
Henna-hooded Foliage-gleaner*     Hylocryptus erythrocephalus
Scaly-throated Leaftosser         Sclerurus guatemalensis
Northern Barred Woodcreeper      Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae
Black-striped Woodcreeper         Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus
Bicolored Antvireo             Dysithamnus occidentalis
Ash-breasted Antbird                    Myrmoborus lugubris
Ocellated Antbird             Phaenostictus mcleannani
Rufous-crowned Antpitta*            Pittasoma rufopileatus
Giant Antpitta *             Grallaria gigantea
Streak-chested Antpitta         Hylopezus perspicillatus
Crescent-faced Antpitta         Grallaricula lineifrons
Chocó Tapaculo             Scytalopus chocoensis
Ridgely and Greenfield (2001) do not rate this species as any kind of risk. Granizo et al (2002) rate it as endangered. As this tapaculo can be numerous locally, this later view seems to be incorrect; nevertheless the fact that the species is not formally registered into any kind of protected land the species seems to be vulnerable.
Subtropical Doradito             Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis
Cinnamon-breasted Tody-Tyrant *   Hemitriccus cinnamomeipectus
Pacific Royal Flycatcher *        Onychorhynchus occidentalis
Gray-breasted Flycatcher *        Lathrotriccus griseipectus
Ochraceous Attila *            Attila torridus
Western Sirystes                        Sirystes albogriseus
Chestnut-bellied Cotinga *           Doliornis remseni
Speckled Mourner             Laniocera rufescens
Rufous Piha                 Lipaugus unirufa
Blue Cotinga                        Cotinga nattererii
Black-tipped Cotinga             Carpodectes hopkei
Broad-billed Sapayoa         Sapayoa aenigma
Rufous-brown Solitaire                Cichlopsis leucogenys
Black-collared Jay                    Cyanolyca armillata
Beautiful Jay *            Cyanolyca pulchra
Hood Mockingbird ***        Nesomimus macdonaldi
Slate-throated Gnatcatcher         Polioptila schistaceigula
Scarlet-breasted Dacnis *        Dacnis berlepschi
Giant Conebill             Oreomanes fraseri
Indigo Flowerpiercer *        Diglossa indigotica
Blue-whiskered Tanager *        Tangara johannae
Purplish-mantled Tanager *        Iridisornis porphyrocephala
Masked Mountain-Tanager *        Buthraupis wetmorei
Golden-chested Tanager *        Bangsia rothschildi
Lemon-spectacled Tanager         Chlorothraupis olivacea
Medium Tree-Finch ***         Camarhynchus pauper
Yellow-green Bush-Tanager *    Chlorospingus flavovirens
Tanager Finch *            Oreothraupis arremonops
Chestnut-headed Oropendola     Psarocolius wagleri
Pale-eyed Blackbird                    Agelasticus xanthophthalmus
Saffron Siskin *             Carduelis siemiradzkii

* Regional endemic species shared with either Colombia or Perú.
*** Galápagos endemic species.  Data Deficient (20)
Black Tinamou            Tinamus osgoodi
Brown Tinamou                        Crypturellus obsoletus
Humboldt Penguin                    Spheniscus humboldti
There is no resident population, the only records being from either dead or dying birds There is not enough data to assign a level of risk for Ecuador but it probably deserves the Endangered status worldwide.  
White-vented Storm-Petrel         Oceanites gracilis
Markham's Storm-Petrel            Oceanodroma markhami
Hornby´s Storm-Petrel                Oceanodroma hornbyi
Starred Wood-Quail                    Odontophorus stellatus
Red-winged Wood-Rail                 Aramides calopterus
Rusty-faced Parrot *                   Hapalopsittaca amazonica
Saffron-headed Parrot *               Pyrilia pyrilia
Red-fan Parrot                        Deroptyus accipitrinus
Spot-fronted Swift             Cypseloides cherriei
Humboldt’s Sapphire *               Hylocharis humboldtii
Lazuline Sabrewing             Campylopterus falcatus
Fiery-tailed Awlbill                    Avocettula recurvirostris
Emerald-bellied Puffleg         Eriocnemis alinae
Yellow-eared Toucanet                Selenidera spectabilis
Striated Antbird             Drymophila devillei
Wing-banded  Antbird                Myrmornis torquata
Straw-backed Tanager                Tangara argyrogfenges

* Regional endemic species shared with either Colombia or Perú.  Near-threatened (79)

Gray Tinamou             Tinamus tao
Buller's Shearwater                    Puffinus bulleri
Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel     Oceanodroma tethys
Only the continental population since the Galápagos population is well protected and has healthy numbers.
Ashy Storm-Petrel                    Oceanodroma homochroa
Peruvian Booby             Sula variegata
Guanay Cormorant             Phalacrocorax bougainvilli
Rufous-headed Chachalaca *     Ortalis erythroptera
Rufous-breasted Wood-Quail     Odontophorus speciosus
Hudsonian Godwit                    Limosa haemastica
Buff-breasted Sandpiper            Tryngites subruficollis
Elegant Tern                 Thalasseus elegans
Peruvian Tern                        Sternula lorata
Large-billed Tern             Phaetusa simplex
Galapagos Dove ***            Zenaida galapagoensis
Maroon-chested Ground-Dove     Claravis mondetura
Scarlet Macaw             Ara macao
Blue-fronted Parrotlet         Touit dilectissimus
Red-billed Ground-Cuckoo            Neomorphus pucherani
Chocó Screech-Owl                    Otus centralis
Rufescent Screech-Owl         Otus ingens
Tooth-billed Hummingbird         Androdon aequatorialis
Emerald-bellied Woodnymph*     Thalurania hypochlora
White-vented Plumeleteer         Chalybura buffonii
Ecuadorian Piedtail *            Phlogophilus hemileucurus
Velvet-purple Coronet *        Boissonneaua jardini
Black-thighed Puffleg *        Eriocnemis derbyi
Hoary Puffleg *            Haplophaedia lugens
Napo Sabrewing *            Campylopterus villaviscensio
Chocó Trogon *            Trogon comptus
Coppery-chested Jacamar *        Galbula pastazae
Black-streaked Puffbird         Malacoptila fulvogularis
Orange-fronted Barbet *        Capito squamatus
Toucan Barbet *            Semnornis ramphastinus
Gray-breasted Mountain-Toucan     Andigena hypoglauca
Black-billed Mountain-Toucan        Andigena nigrirostris
Black-mandibled Toucan         Ramphastos ambiguus
Cinnamon Woodpecker         Celeus loricatus
Equatorial Graytail             Xenerpestes singularis
Marañon Spinetail             Synallaxis maranonica
This species has not previously been assigned any level of risk but the range of distribution is very small and restricted to the Chinchipe river drainage. The suitable habitat in Perú is only restricted to very remote areas and what is left is under great pressure. In Ecuador the habitat seems to be in better condition but the deforestation is increasingly growing in the range. It is not registered in any protected area, therefore should be treated as Vulnerable.
Western Woodhaunter         Hyloctistes virgatus
Spotted Woodcreeper             Xiphorhynchus erythropygius
Greater Scythebill             Campylorhamphus pucherani
Spot-crowned Antvireo         Dysithamnus puncticeps
Spotted Antbird             Hylophylax naevioides
Immaculate Antbird             Myrmeciza immaculata
Stub-tailed Antbird *            Myrmeciza berlepschi
Peruvian Antpitta *            Grallaricula peruviana
Spectacled Bristle-Tyrant         Phylloscartes orbitalis
Pacific Flatbill             Rhynchocyclus pacificus
Yellow-throated Spadebill            Platyrinchus flavigularis
Orange-banded Flycatcher *        Myiophobus lintoni
Rufous Mourner             Rhytipterna holerythra
White-ringed Flycatcher        Conopias albovittatus
Black-chested Fruiteater         Pipreola lubomirskii
Fiery-throated Fruiteater            Pipreola chlorolepidota
Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater         Pipreola frontalis
Gray-tailed Piha                        Snowornis subalaris
Black-necked Red-Cotinga         Phoenicircus nigricollis
Black Solitaire *            Entomodestes coracinus
Dagua Thrush *            Turdus daguae
Andean Slaty-Thrush             Turdus nigriceps
Stripe-throated Wren             Thryothorus leucopogon
Song Wren                 Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus
Scarlet-thighed Dacnis *        Dacnis venusta
Scarlet-and-white Tanager         Chrysothlypis salmoni
Fulvous-vented Euphonia         Euphonia fulvicrissa
Gray-and-gold Tanager         Tangara palmeri
Rufous-winged Tanager         Tangara lavinia
Scarlet-browed Tanager         Heterospingus xanthopygius
Piura Hemispingus *            Hemispingus piurae
Black-cowled Saltator *        Saltator nigriceps
Masked Saltator             Saltator cinctus
Large Tree-Finch ***            Camarhynchus psittacula
Large-billed Seed-Finch         Oryzoborus crassirostris
Black-billed Seed-Finch         Oryzoborus atrirostris
Sulphur-throated Finch         Sicalis taczanowskii
White-rimmed Brush-Finch         Atlapetes leucopis
Scarlet-rumped Cacique         Cacicus microrhynchus

* Regional endemic species shared with either Colombia or Perú.
*** Galápagos endemic species.

Copyright © 2010 by Lelis Navarrete

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Meet the Author

Lelis Navarrete – Birding tour leader. Lelis has 19 years of experience as a birding guide and naturalist in the field. He has led groups of birders throughout most of Latin America, guiding frequently in countries like his native country of Ecuador and in the Galapagos Islands, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil and Panama. A Biology B.Sc. graduate from Universidad Católica in Quito, Lelis has supported Jocotoco Foundation since its founding in 1998 and was an active Board Member until 2010 supporting Ecuadorian bird and wildlife conservation. Lelis divides his time between his two great passions in life: birding and spending time with his wife Solange and son Fabian with whom he lives in Quito.


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